Glossary of terms used in the PVC business

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Additive A term used generally to indicate special chemicals that may be added to products to improve their characteristics. In many plastic products, the polymer is only one constituent. In order to arrive at a set of properties appropriate to the product, the polymer is almost always combined with other ingredients, or additives, which are mixed in during processing and fabrication. Among these additives are impact modifiers, colorants, reinforcements, plasticizers and stabilisers.

Amorphous Having no ordered arrangement. Polymers are amorphous when their chains are tangled. Polymers are not amorphous when their chains are lined up in ordered crystals.

Antioxidants Antioxidants are additives for materials such as polymers that inhibit the oxidative degradation of the product. They are usually based on molecules that will react with, and remove radicals as they are formed.

Arbitrage The simultaneous purchase and sale of an instrument in two separate markets, when the price is out of line. An arbitrage opportunity is the opportunity to buy an asset at a low price then immediately selling it on a different market for a higher price.

Aromatics So called because of their distinctive perfumed smell, they are a group of hydrocarbons including, mainly, benzene, toluene and the xylenes. These are basic chemicals used as starting materials for a wide range of consumer products. Almost all aromatics come from crude oil, although small quantities are made from coal.

Atom The smallest particle of an element that can enter into a chemical combination.

ATR A certificate used in the exports or imports of the goods between Turkey and EU, it is also called Movement Certificate ATR.

Autoclave A heavy steel vessel in which polymers are polymerized by means of steam and/or hot air and under pressure.